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《机关的机关》连载14:把公文写成美文第三编如何让笔杆支撑你提要文字表达能力是机关干部全面素质的综合反映,没有观察问题、分析问题、综合问题、表达问题的水平,是写不出好文章的。文字表达能力,是机关干部的看家本领、核心能力,没有这个本领和能力,

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妈妈像花儿一样剧情介绍|《机关的机关》连载14: 把公文写成美文

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妈妈像花儿一样剧情介绍|《机关的机关》连载14: 把公文写成美文的详细说明:

《机关的机关》连载14: 把公文写成美文

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第三编  如何让笔杆支撑你

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提要 文字表达能力是机关干部全面素质的综合反映,没有观察问题、分析问题、综合问题、表达问题的水平,是写不出好文章的。文字表达能力,是机关干部的看家本领、核心能力,没有这个本领和能力,在机关工作是没有发展余地的,起码不是个合格的机关干部。


第十四章  公文写成美文

 

大凡能调到机关工作的,都有一定的写作基础,会写公文应该没有什么问题。然而,会写公文是一回事,把公文写好又是另一回事。所以,这里提出一个观点:把公文写成美文。


为什么要提这个观点?因为把公文写成美文,在我国是有传统的。在我国古代,文与言是相分的。也就是说,平时说话可以随便一点,但要♜落成文字,就要追求尽善尽美。历史上那些流传千古的华章,实际上不少都是公文,如诸葛亮的《出师表》,李密的《陈情表》,都是向最高领导写的请示报告。这些公文,原本无意抒情或唯美,却因为情真意切,感人肺腑,竟把奏议或请辞的公文写成了流传千古的美文,“读《出师表》不流泪谓之不忠,读《陈情表》不流泪谓之不孝”,这就是美文的魅力。


古代有人把文件写成美文,令人赏心悦目;而今不少人却把文件写成 “丑文”,令人望而生厌。早在上个世纪四五十年代,毛泽东就指出,我们的许多同志,在写文章的时候,十分爱好党八股,不生动,不形象,不讲究词章。看这种文件是一场大灾难,耗费精力又少有所得。一定要改变这种不良风气。毛泽东批评的文风不正的问题,至今仍然没有得到彻底的根治。


综合机关的公文,比较常见的话语病有四点:


一是正确的废话。就是那些你挑不出毛病也抓不住把柄而又毫无意义的话。


二是漂亮的空话。也就是没有营养的话。说多说少一个样,说与不说一个样。反应在机关的行文或讲话中,就是那些原则来原则去不着实调的话,那些云里来雾里去不得要领的话,也包括那些看似抢眼,实则空泛的话。


三是严谨的套话。就是那些长此以往形成固定套路的语言模式。这种语言模式通常包括为两类。一类是因循惯例的套话,一类是配套成龙的套话。


四是违心的假话。指的是在机关内部,有些话,明明是假却要默认为真,腹诽、装傻可以,但绝对不能点破。


要改变这种现状,负责公文起草的机关干部责任重大,如果我们都把公文写成了美文,看这种文件将会是一个极大的享受。


什么是美文?《辞源》的解释是:美好的文辞。我觉得,美文是个与时俱进的概念。通俗地讲,凡是写得好的文章,不论是文学作品,还是实用文章,就是美文。


那么,文章怎么叫好,怎么叫不好,怎么才能写好,这里面的道理很多,可以说,智者见智,仁者见仁。毛泽东主席曾经提出一个要求:“文章和文件都应当具有这样三种性质:准确性、鲜明性、生动性。”我认为,具有这“三性”的公文,就称得上是美文。具体来说,把公文写成美文,起码要具备“通俗、深刻、简明、生动”等方面的特征。


通俗——深入浅出,言近旨远


文章的表现形式大致可分为四种:深入深出,深入浅出,浅入浅出,浅入深出。这四种以深入浅出为最好,以深入深出为最差。


其中的道理不言而喻。我们写文章、写文件的目的是给人家看的,不是给自己看的,所以只有你自己能看懂不行,最主要的是让人家看懂才好。人家看不懂或不完全懂,就看不下去,即使硬着头皮看下去了,似是而非,也难以收到好的成效。


通过研究发现,不独我们把深入浅出、通俗易懂看作是文章、文件的最高境界,外国思想文化界也是这么认为的。美国文化界对于什么是名著,提出六条标准:一是通俗的,二是读者最多,三是言近旨远,四是持久不过时,五是教育性、启发性,六是涉及人类生活。前三条标准,都是讲的深入浅出、通俗↕易懂。


什么样的文章算深入浅出、通俗易懂?一言蔽之:“外行人能看懂,内行看着不外行。”尤其是那些专业性、技术性强的公文,需要在起草过程中,进行通俗化、浅显化、大众化处理。最常见的方法是借喻明理,也就是我们平常所说的比喻或打比方,它一般借助具体的、浅显的、熟知的事物去说明或描述抽象的、深奥的、生疏的道理。我们来举例说明,就会更容易理解一些。


我国加入WTO之时,许多国人对于加入WTO的深刻含义还不是很清楚。龙永图在做报告时解释说:由于我国目前经济比较弱,美国等西方国家比较强,面对面解决贸易摩擦和纠纷我们处于不利地位。作为发展中国家,中国是愿意使用WTO多边的争]端解决机制的,这是加入WTO的一个好处。这个道理很简单,一个大个子和一个小个子发生矛盾时,大个子最喜欢两个人面对面解决,把小个子拉到阴暗的角落里单挑,狠揍一顿。小▌个子则希望把冲突拿到人多势众的地方去,希望有人来主持公道,讲点道理。所以,我们是愿意使用WTO多边的争端解决机制的。


龙永图这样一讲,使听众轻而易举地明白了加入WTO的好处。我们写文章就是如此,一定要通俗。


深刻——触及问题,观点鲜明


认真分析一下文字材料的历史,会发现这样一种现象,无论是实用文章,还是文学作品,有的写出来后影响非常之大,有的甚至流传千古,成为千古绝唱。比如从典型材料来看,如写祖狄的“闻鸡起舞”,写孟子母亲的“孟母择邻”,写匡衡的“凿壁偷光”,等等,这些故事虽已流传了几千年,家喻户晓,但还是会不断地流传下去。就从“建议”类的公文说,如李斯的《谏逐客令》、魏征的《谏太宗十思疏》等等,都是历史上的名篇,一两千年流传不息,代代相传,其中蕴含的思想到现在人们还在引用。


当然,也有一些文章,写出后没有引起人们的任何重视,甚至一出手就无声无息了。大家都去过故宫,故宫墙上写了许多万寿无疆赋,那是给慈禧太后祝寿时写的,仔细看一看那些赋,文字写得非常华丽,对句非常工仗,写得也非常好。又写在墙上,那么多人到故宫去,应该说广告面是很广了,可是到现在为止,却从没有听到哪个人说,故宫里的万寿无疆赋有哪一篇写得好。


产生这种现象的原因究竟在哪里呢?我们认真研究就会发现,文章反响大小、影响远近的根源,关键看是不是触及到了问题,是不是针对一定的问题去写,凡是触及到问题的,影响就大,流传就远,反之则无病呻吟,有的只是华丽的词藻,有的只是庞杂的材料,不是针对什么问题,解决什么问题,人们读过之后,根本不知道作者在赞成什么,反对什么,没有思想,没有观点,没有灵魂,就不会产生什么影响。所以,我们要把公文写成美文,就要敢于触及问题。


首先,触及的问题越尖锐、越突出,引起的影响就越大。我们在日常生活中都有这样的体验,有时一项工作或一个社会问题,在现实生活中表现得很突出,矛盾很尖锐,大家觉得迫切需要改变,需要解决。在这样的情况下,有人针对这一问题拿出好的经验,提出好的办法,马上会使人豁然开朗。而且触及的问题越尖锐,针对的问题越突出,引起的影响就越大。比如,一段时间以来,广大人民群众对领导作风,对领导机关的工作作风,对文风、会风、话风等方面存在的严重问题,意见很大,甚至囧深恶痛绝。十八届中央政治局研究制定出关于改进工作作风、密切联系群众的八项规定,把改进调查研究、精简会议活动、精简文件简报、规范出访活动、改进警卫工作、改进新闻报道、严格文稿发表、厉行勤俭节约等原则要求具体细化,使上下有章可循,有据可依,并率先垂范,付诸行动。在举国上下、国内国际引起强烈反响,获得高度赞扬。


其次,触及的问题涉及范围越广泛,引起的反响就越强烈。实践证明,一篇文章触及的问题带来的效果是:如果是针对某个人的,只能引起当事人的反应;如果是针对某个单位的,就会在这个单位引起反应;如果是针对一个行业的ㄧ,就会在这个行业引起反应;如果是针对整个社会的,就会在整个社会引起反应;如果是针对人类普遍存在的,就会对整个人类产生影响。例如抗日战争时期,国内出现了两种思想倾向,一种认为我们能够迅速地消灭敌人,取得抗日战争的胜利,对抗日战争的进程抱着盲目乐观的态度,这一种倾向被称之为“速胜论”;另一种倾向叫做“亡国论”,认为敌我力量相差太悬殊,武器装备、资源对比太明显,我们不可能战胜敌人,硬拼是会亡国的,对前途充满了悲观。面对这两种主张,毛泽东根据当时的实际情况,对各方面的力量进行了对比和客观分析,明确指出:抗日战争是一场艰苦的持久的人民战争,但最后的胜利是属于我们的!这就是著名的光辉篇章《论持久战》。


据程思远回忆,毛泽东的《论持久战》刚发表,周恩来就把它的基本精神向白崇禧做了介绍。白崇禧深为赞赏,认为是克敌制胜的最高战略方针,并把它向蒋介石转述,蒋介石也十分赞成。在蒋介石的支持下,白崇禧把《论持久战》的精神归纳成两句话,“积小胜为大胜,以空间换时间”,由军事委员会通令全国,作为抗日战争中的战略指导思想。《论持久战》这篇光辉文章,使全国人民认清了形势,明确了我们的优势,更加清楚了敌人存在的劣势,懂得了如何利用我们的优势打击敌人的劣势,扭转战争的形势,化不利为有利,对最后打败日本侵略者做好了充分的打持久战的思想准备,对取得抗日战争的伟大胜利充满了信心,鼓舞了人Ν们的士气。举国结成广泛的统一战线,坚持抗战八年,终于取得胜利,使日本侵略者无条件投降。


再次,触及的问题越难解决,在历史上反复的次数越多,影响越长远。有一首耳熟能详的古诗:“锄禾日当午,汗滴禾下土。谁知盘中餐,粒粒皆辛苦。”流传已经两千年了,到现在还在传颂,为什么它有那么强的生命力?因为这首诗针对的有些人不珍惜劳动人民汗水的现象还广泛存在着。正因为“舌尖上的浪费”现象触目惊心,令人心痛,所以人们还经常举出这首诗来教育大家,什么时候浪费问题不存在了,这首诗就没有生命力了。


再如,上个世纪六十年代我们宣传了焦裕禄这个典型,在当时引起反响很大,很强烈。半个多世纪过去了,现在把焦裕禄搬上电影、电视,反响还是很大,不少人感动得流泪。为什么?焦裕禄是针对有些干部的事业心不强,作风不廉洁的问题写的,这个问题在当时干部队伍中很突出,在现在的干部队伍中也很突出,所以能够在群众中引起强烈┃的思想共鸣。话又说回来,焦裕禄这个典型如果拿¹到解放战争、抗日战争或井冈山时期宣传,影响就不会很大,因为那时候我们全党的干部几乎都是这样做的,干部队伍中不存在事业心不强和党风不正的问题。因而,在那时宣传的影响,就钅不会有今天这么大。


古今这两个典型事例充分说明,无论是采取哪种方式写文字材料,只要针对的问题越难解决,在人类历史上反复的时间越长,影响就越深远。反之,生命力就短。


问题是文字材料的灵魂,要想写出好的公文,必须要了解问题,很好地研究问题,针对问题去写。只要善于研究问题,不会写材料的人可以很快会写材料,写材料一般化的人,能较快地提高写作的质量。相反,如果不重视这个问题,尽管付出了很多代价,想了很多点子,材料还是写不好,更谈不上写出有影响的东西。


所以我们写东西,都应该建立这样一种思想,就是我写这个东西,究竟是针对什么问题,解决这个问题对人类社会,对我们的国家,对我们的民族,对我们的军队,对我们某个行业,究竟有什么用处?有用处我就写,没有用处就不要去做“无用功”。只要树起了这样的观点,并朝这方面去努力,我们的公文写作质量就会不断提高,就能逐步写出有分量的东西。


 简明——简洁明快、言约义丰


简明就是行文简明扼要,没有多余妈妈像花儿一样剧情介绍的话。我觉得,简明不仅文字作品是一种形式,更是文章的一种美的素质。


这里趣解一下“简明”二字。这个“简”字的下Γ部,“门”里是个“日”字,意即从门缝里透进一丝日光。“明”,清楚明白之意,像一碗清水一样一看到底。像这样字少意深,清澈透明的公文,当然会受到人们的欢迎。


如何写出简明的公文?


一是缜密思考,想明白再写。“如果你不能简单说清楚,就是你没有完全明白。”爱因斯坦的一句话,点到了一些人讲长话写长文的要害。许多人表述问题翻来覆去,总怕人听不明白,其实是自己没有想透彻、搞明白。而那些精炼深透的表达,则常常表明人们认识问题的到位程度。


二是开门见山,单刀直入。开门见山,直奔主题,一针见血,一语道破,应该是现代公文的一个追求。就像军人打靶一样,瞄准靶心,讲“十环语言”,切中要害,干脆利落。


三是把握轻重,抓住要害。一份公文,一篇文章,往往会涉及方方面面,多个层面。既有轻重之分,也有缓急之分。要以最少的文字表达更多的信息和内容,就应抓住重点、抓住要害,做到以重带轻、以急带缓,切勿贪大求全、平分秋色、面面俱到。


四是高度概括,荟取精华。简练离不开概括,概括就要广采博收。老舍先生说:“简练须要概括,须要多知多懂。知道一百个人,而写一个人;知道一百件事,而写一件事,才能写得简练。心有余力,有所选择,才能简练。”(老舍:《出口成章》,复旦大学出版社2004年版)这真是真知灼见!欲写的少,先求其多。抓住最典型、最精当的事例和语言,文章才能精炼下来,收到简洁明快、言约义丰之效。


♛五是控制展开,干脆利落。有个作家说,文学是剪裁的艺术。我们还可以说,公文写作是选择的艺术。要想短而精,就应选择那些非写不可的东西,选择那些以一当十的东西,选择最能精确表达思想的布局和层次。兵不在多而在精。素材不在多而在管用。对每个思想元素、每个字句,都应来一番“检阅”和把关。精而管用的,用在关键处,没有多少实际意义的,一律进行压减和“淘汰”,力求使文章“大略如行云妈妈像花儿一样剧情介绍流水,初无定✅质,但常行于所当行,止于所不可止。”(苏轼:《答谢民师书》)


六是精心修改,反复锤炼。好材料是写出来的,也是改出来的。鲁迅先生说:“写完后至少看两遍,竭力将可有可无的字、句、段删去毫不可惜。宁可将可作小说的材料缩成速写,决不将速写材料拉成小说。”(《鲁迅全集》第四卷,人民文学出版社1956年版)托尔斯泰则把删减作为一种写作方法和窍门来看待,并且一生都奉行这一准则,他还告诉别人:“要永远抛弃写作可以不加修改的思想,修改三四次还太少。”(《应用写作》2008年第1期)文学大师们之所以一再强调修改问题,原因就在于任何认识成果都不是一蹴而就的,而是在反复、比较、推敲、锤炼中逐步完善而成的。


总而言之,我觉得要把公文写简练,把比较复杂的意思用最短的篇幅写出来,就如同矿石提纯、元素浓缩一样,是要经过千锤百炼的。所以文章写好后,字斟句酌,反复推敲是十分必要的。


生动——能说服人,能打动人


胡乔木在《怎样写文件》中曾提出公文生动的三条标准:一要引人看,要有好的介绍方法,要有吸引人的力量;二要看得懂;三要能说服人,打动人。他还指出,我们写文章的时候,总以为自己的道理是对的,要人家相信,要说服党和人民群众。写文件就是要用道理说服人,不但说服人,还要能打动人,说服着重在理智方面,打动人除了理智方面还带有一点感情,使看的人真正被你动员起来。


 ——要注意以情动人。 我们起草公文,目的是给人看的,尽管是讨论工作,但是应该有感情。提倡什么、促进什么要有感情,反对什么也要し有感情。可以说,感情在文字材料中的作用是非常大的。读有感情的材料,令人如浴春风,使人爱不释手,其中所讲的东西也容易接受。无感情的材料,冷若冰霜,令人生厌,唯恐避之而不及,很难谈得上发挥其作用。


首先,位置要摆正,不居高临下。毛泽东1957年3月12日《在中国共产党全国宣传工作会议上的讲话》中指出,当自己写文章的时候,不要老是想着“我多么高明”,而是采取和读者处于完全平等地位的态度,你架子摆得越大,人家越是不理你那一套,你的文章人家就越不爱看。我们应该老老实实地办事,不要靠装腔作势来吓人。对这些教诲要谨记在心。机关干部行文,多是代表一级机关,或是代替一级领导立言。不论代机关还是代领导,都要以真诚平等的态度对待他人,始终以普通人的态度出↑现,不摆架子,不神气十足,这样笔下出来的东西就自然会动之以情,晓之以理;就会多用常见句,少用晦涩句;多用短句,少用长句;多用启发句,少用命令句。“面目可憎”也就变为“面目可亲”。


其次,思维要辩证,不走向极端。对工作的看法,对人的看法,肯定一切或否定一切,都是片面的。而在起草文字材料中,有的人容易走极端,说好一切都好,说不好一切都坏,这样的文风也是令人生厌的。正确的方法ワ是辩证地看,全面地看,联系地看,发展地看,不以偏概全,一丑遮百俊,也不一俊遮百丑,实事求是,全面客观,这样的材料符合事物本来面貌,令人可信可亲。


再次,语言要活泼,不板着面孔。要使公文有感情,还要注意学习和使用群众语щ言。这是毛泽东的号召。有人说,机关公文用群众语言多了,会给人一种不严肃、不实在的感觉。这是一种偏见。严不严肃,实不实在,不在于群众语言多少,而在于群众是不是讲了这种语言,以及用这些语言能不能正确说明观点。如果确实有又能说明问题,选用到公文中,是可以增强感染力和真实性的。阅读毛泽∆东和邓小平的文章,随处都能够看到鲜活的民间俗语和群众语言。像毛泽东常用的“高手”“行家”“书生气”“出洋相”“吃老本”“门外汉”“土洋结合”“草木皆兵”“天王老子”“人不犯我我不犯人”“不打不相识”“打开天窗说亮话”“英雄难过美人关”“不是冤家不聚头”“一个篱笆三个⬜桩、一个好汉三个帮”“老虎屁股摸不得”“八仙过海,各显神通”“金玉其外,败絮其中”“东方不亮西方亮”“星星之火,可以燎原”“天要下雨,娘要嫁人”等等;邓小平常用的“换脑筋”“靠得住”“不够格”“老祖宗”“旧瓶装新酒”“摸着石头过河”“天不会塌下来”等等,都是从民间语言这个“大海”中提取的精华,句句亲切自然,句句生动朴实。


——要遵循公文的语言特色。机关公文的语言,有自己的审美范畴。它要求朴实无华,规范准确,含义深刻,简洁明快,朗朗上口,有很强的吸引力和感召力。古人讲:“ヲ言之无文,行而不远。”提高公文质量,很重要的是按照公文语言特色,认真进行润色。


一是表述要准确。机关公文,特别是工作指导性文件,像决议、决定、意见等,都是十分严肃的文件,本身具有一定的法规性质,体现着发文机关的权威性,必须做到准确无误。即使是领导讲话、调查报告、总结报告、经验材料等,表ㄜ述也应该十分准确。否则,就可能起到误导的作用,给工作和建设带来损失。在润色时,把握好三个要点:


首先,含义要准确。每一句话都只能有一种意义,一种理解,不能有多种理解,不能引起疑义或歧义,不能含糊其辞,模棱两可。


其次,遣词要恰当。特别是注意把握好范围和程度的限定,不能把特定、特指的东西泛化、绝对化。涉及对某个事件、某项工作、某个人物、某个问题的评价、定性时,一定要尊重历史,尊重事实,把握好分寸,做出符合实际的准确表述。


再次,提法要有根据。无论是沿用过去的提法,还是创造新的提法,都要有理有据,认真考证论证,不能凭空想象。 


二是内涵要丰富。机关公文不能太浅薄,如同流水账般,要有丰富的内涵。既要有深刻的思想性,又要有很强的针对性,还要有很强的导向性,使人有回味、思考、体验的空间。所以,在起草公文时,要十分注重语句的高度概括和凝练,最大限度地拓展其内在的张力和思想容量,不能说“一句顶一万句”,至少要一句是一句。托尔斯泰在创作他的名著《安娜·卡列尼娜》时,开始时他的导语部分写了两张纸,最后凝练成两句话:“幸福的家庭都是相似的,不幸的家庭各有各的不幸。”其内涵比原来两页纸还要丰富得多。在起草文件时,要有这种精神。 


三是语言要规范。规范并不是呆板和陈旧,也不是千篇一律,而是能够准确、鲜明、生动地表达文章的内容。郭沫若讲:“就语言方面来讲,要求字眼总要用得适如其量。这样,表现的概念才会准确,也才能使人感到鲜明。”他还强调,在选择词句、字眼上,要多用一些心,不要选用深奥的外国式的词句。句法构成要老实一点,要合乎中国话的一般规律。用字有两个秘诀,就是选用现成的概念明确的字,不要用太偏僻的字。偏僻的字不明确,人家也不容易懂。含糊的字——这样可以解释,那样也可以解释的字,最好避而不用。用明确的而不是模棱两可的字来表达,就可以收到鲜明的效果。我理解,郭老讲的应该是语言规范的要旨。


我们汉语的词汇是很有讲究的,只有认真琢磨其中的微妙之处,才能用的恰到好处。有些词古今意义不同,比如“交通”,现在是指运输事业,过去则讲的是勾结,“内通外交”也就是内外勾结;再比如“检讨”,现代讲为检查错误,过去则是“┍总结”的意思,包括总结成绩也包括指出缺点。还有一些词褒贬不同,比如“固执”和“坚持”,实际是一样的意思,但正确的“固执”是“坚持”,错误的“坚持”是“固执”。还有表示相关者身份的,比如“寡妇”和“遗孀”,都是指死了丈夫的女士,用途却不一样,一般的“遗孀”叫“寡妇”,有身份的“寡妇”叫“遗孀”。还有表示感觉的,比如“凉快”和“冷”,比较舒服的“冷”叫“凉快”,感觉不好的“凉快”叫“冷”。所以,我们在起草公文时,要选择最恰当的词,才能把意思表达准确。特别要注意的是,机关公文中,不要用网络语言中的那种调侃式的表达,比如把“同学”写成“童鞋”,把“悲剧”写成“杯具”,把“妈妈”写成“麻麻”,把“什么”写成“神马”那就失去了公文的严肃性。


——要注意以事感人。一般来说,事实最有说服力,也最能感动人。但只有事实还不够。在写作时,你还要考虑,怎样才能把这一事实交代清楚,写得完美,使人读起来有兴味。


一是尽量少用☕形容词。郭沫若在答《新观察》记者问时,有这样一段话:“要使文章生动,我想,少用形容词是一个秘诀。现在有些文章有个毛病,就是爱堆砌形容词,而且总是爱用最高级的形容词,如形容攵一个人的美,就说‘非常非常的美’或‘极端极端的美’。又如‘六万万人正以排山倒海、乘风破浪之势……’这样的句子,就有点不恰当。”郭老讲的这个问题,到现在仍有针对性和普遍性。当然,少用形容词并不是不用,而是注意准确使用形容词。福楼拜说过,“你要形容一个东西,就要找到那个唯一的形容词。”形容者,外表也,形体、容貌、态势。本来最简单的动宾结构就能说明的事物,如果再加上形容就显得更魅力无穷,更好看,更生动,内涵更丰富。好比素描稿上了色彩。如“他走在路上”,就不如“他愉快地走在路上”更生动;“她笑了”,就不如“她笑得像花儿一样”更生动。所以说,形容词一定要用准确,否则就不要乱用。


二是要扭转一个误区。这就是有的认为机关公文不能太具体、太实际,不然就会缺乏普遍指导意义。由于这个思想的指导,有的在起草过程中,总是追求原则化、理性化的东西。表面上看,这样的材料立意很高,气势很大,实际上却是很“虚弱”,里面多是缺乏实际内容的大话、空话、套话。这样的文字材料写得再多,也只是应景文章、表面文章,对工作起不到什么作用。所以,应走出坐而论道、从虚到虚、原则来原则去的误区,不断提高用事实说话的能力。

    

首先,善于运用自己调查的资料。这就要求动笔前,要深入基层,深入实际,调查研究,掌握大量的第一手资料。我过去搞新闻时,听到一个“七分采访,三分写作”的说法,感到很有道理。机关干部起草公文也可以借鉴这个“三七律”,有了丰富的第一手资料, 就不用闭门造车、绞尽脑汁地编造了。

    

其次,善于运用数字资料。数字本身枯燥无味,但如果运用得当,就会极大增强文章的感染力、说服力。比如,周恩来总理是举世公认的鞠躬尽瘁、死而后已的楷模,用什么样的赞美语言歌颂都嫌不到位。有一份材料用了这样一串数字:“周恩来是1974年6月1日住进医院的,据资料统计,1至5月共139天,他每天工作12~14小时有9天;14~18小时有74天;19~2⑤3小时有38天;连续24小时有5天。只有13天工作在12小时之内。而从3月中旬至5月底,2个半月,日常工作之外,他又参加中央会议21次,外事活动54次,其他会议和谈话57次……”这一连串数字,真可谓感天动地!

    

第三,要善于运用科研成果资料。科研成果中,有自然科学的,有社会科学的,根据文字材料需要,都可以适当运用。比如,我们经常论述坚忍不拔的精神,有的文章就列举几位名人的韧性:达尔文写《物种起源》用了27年,歌德的《浮士德》写了60年,司马迁写《史记》用了18年,司马光编《资治通鉴》达19年,李时珍写《本草纲目》花了30年,宋应星的《天工开物》写了18年……通过这一座座丰碑,我们仿佛看见了这些名人为实现他们的目标而刻苦坚忍、百折不挠的高大身影,增加了文章的感染力、说服力。

    

第四,善于运用典故资料。在人类历史的长河中,古今中外留下了许多脍炙人口的典故,其中有的事例不一定真实,所阐述的思想内容却是真实的,运用得当,可使文章增辉。我看到李瑞环同志在会见香港各界知名人士时的讲话稿,其中就运用了一个典故:古书中记载了这样一个故事,汉朝时,京城田氏三兄弟田真、田庆和田广,一直和睦相处,庭院中有棵紫荆树,长得花繁叶茂,但后来他们闹别扭,要分家,紫荆一夜之间就枯萎了,兄弟三人大为震惊,大受感动,于是兄弟不再分家,和好如初,紫荆花又盛开如故。晋代陆机做诗说“三荆欢同株,四鸟悲异林。”唐代李白感慨道,“田氏仓猝骨肉分,青天白日摧紫荆。”上面讲的故事,是体现“天人感应”思想的一个传说,未必真有其事。但这个故事所表达的道理,的确发人深思。

   

当然,写文章、写材料用事实说话,不能是事实材料的简单罗列,而应该把叙事与明理结合起来,夹叙夹议,事理结合。比如,李瑞环同志引用这个典故后接着说:“我们这个5000年文明古国,之所以历经磨难而绵延不衰,屡处逆境而昂扬奋起,就是因为有许多这样博大深邃的思想,有一种内在的强大凝聚力。当今中国要发展,要振兴,必须继承弘扬中华民族的优良传统,特别要倡导‘和合’,强调团结。”

   

 ——要注意把细节写好。我觉得,一篇好的文字材料,必定要有血有肉,详略适当,该简的地方一笔带过,该繁的地方不能省略,否则就剩下干巴巴的几条筋,像骷髅般丑陋难看。

 

  一是要在抽象的论述中加些不抽象的东西。胡乔木曾指出:写文件要生动,不生动人家不愿意看,但不能像普通文学作品那つ样办。要生动就得在抽象的论述中加些不抽象的东西,这样可以增加生动性。纯粹抽象的,像算术题似的,一道道列下去,怎样也不会生动,因为全部是抽象的。我们讨论工作本来是比较抽象的东西,讲的道理、列的数字是抽象的,可以穿插一些具体人、具体单位、具体事实,这样文章就可以不那么沉闷。他还列举了一个例子,当年湖北省委转发关于红安县委搞试验田的经验报告,加了一些具体情节:乡里人到县里要见干部,干部开始说是“没有时间”,等到“有时间”,又说“下班了”。以后城里干部下乡,乡里人也说“没时间”,等了一会儿,他也说“我下班了!”引了这么件事就大为生动。还提到干部穿着鞋袜,在田岸上“检查生产”,社员骂了他一顿,说“摇摇摆摆像个相公,莫把田埂子踩塌了!”单这句话还不够,又问:“你骂谁?”社员说:“我骂你!”然后再加上县委书记说:“骂得对!”有这样的对话,印象就很深刻。从胡乔木举的这个例子不难看出,公文起草运用细节,确能增加生动性。

   

 二是要把工作中的原则要求讲细致。“细节”也不一定都是人物对话、人物动作,把工作中的原则要求讲细致,就得有细节。比如,我们经常强调,改进领导作风,关心群众利益,要“想群众所想,急群众所急,帮群众所需”,这话没错,写起来顺手,读起来顺口,听起来顺耳。但仔细一琢磨,到底怎样做才算“想、急、帮”,很难有个准确的答案。所以,千真万确的大话、套话,不一定是有用的话,在材料起草中一定要少用或不用。毛泽东同志在《关心群众生活,注意工作方法》中就把“细节”交代得很清楚:“我们应该深刻地注意群众生活的问题,从土地、劳动问题,到柴米油盐的问题。妇女群众要学习犁耙,找什么人去教她们呢?小孩子要求读书,小学办起来了没有呢?对面的小桥太小会跌倒行人,要不要修理一下呢……”这“应该讨论,应该决定,应该实行,应该检查。”看了这些要求,任何人都知道如何去做,用不着费劲去揣摩领导心思。1966年邢台发生地震,周总理来到隆尧县的白家寨村,当他得知群众炊具被砸坏,每天只吃干粮时,没有提一些“要高度重视、全力解决”之类的大口号,而是指示救灾指挥部负责人:“要保证群众每家有一盏煤油灯,一个和面盆,一口锅,一把饭勺,每人一双筷子,一个碗”,有了这样的“细节”,文章怎能不实在、不生动呢? 


三是用形象化语言表述理性内容。有人讲,机关公文理性占很大比例,不好出细节。实际上,理性文章用形象化的语言表述ヤ出来,也能出“细节”。比如毛泽东在《论联合政府》中讲到大革命失败后说:“中国共产党和中国人民并没有被吓倒,被征服,被杀绝。他们从地下爬起来,揩干净身上的血迹,掩埋好同伴的尸首,他们又继续战斗了。”我们看,写得多么简明和生动。马克思的《资本论》是大部头的理论著作,马克思在描写劳动力的买卖时这样写道:“原来的货币所有者成了资本家,昂首前行。劳动所有者成了他的工人,尾随于后。一个笑容满面,雄心勃勃;一个战战兢兢,畏缩不前,像在市场上出卖了自己的皮一样,只有一个前途———让人家来鞣。”我想,“爬起”“揩干”“掩埋”“昂首前进”“尾随于后”“笑容满面”“畏缩不前”等也属“有细节”之类。所以,只要我们重视细节的描写和运用,文字材料就会变得栩栩如生,引人入胜。


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Organization serial 14: Write official documents into the third part of the American essayu0026nbsp;How to make the pen support youu0026nbsp;Summary writing ability is a comprehensive reflection of the overall quality of the agency cadres, there is no observation problem, analysis problem, comprehensive problem, expression problem It is impossible to write a good article. The ability to express in words is the housekeeping and core competence of an agency cadre. Without this ability and ability, there is no room for development in agency work, and at least he is not a qualified agency cadre. Chapter 14 u0026nbsp;Writing official documents into American essaysu0026nbsp;Most people who can be transferred to work in an agency have a certain writing foundation, and there should be no problem with writing official documents. However, it is one thing to write official documents, and another to write official documents well. So, here is a point of view: write official documents into beautiful essays. Why is this point of view raised This is because there is a tradition in our country to write official documents as American essays. In ancient my country, writing and language were separated. In other words, you can speak casually, but if you want to be written, you must pursue perfection. In fact, many of the Chinese chapters that have been passed down through the ages are in fact official documents, such as Zhuge Liangs Teacher Table and Li Mis Chen Qing Table, both of which were written to the top leaders for instructions. These official documents originally had no intention of lyrical or aesthetic, but because of the sincere feelings and touching, they actually wrote the official documents of the memorial or resignation into the beautiful essays that have been passed down through the ages. Reading Teaching the Teacher does not shed tears and it is infidelity. Reading Chen Qing Ciao Not crying means unfilial piety, this is the charm of Meiwen. In ancient times, some people wrote documents as beautiful texts, which was pleasing to the eye. Nowadays, many people write documents as ugly texts, which is boring. As early as the 1940s and 1950s, Mao Zedong pointed out that when writing articles, many of our comrades were very fond of party stereotypes. They were not lively, imaged, and did not pay attention to words and chapters. Reading this kind of file is a catastrophe, which consumes energy and yields little. This bad ethos must be changed. The problem of the improper writing style criticized by Mao Zedong has not yet been thoroughly cured. There are four common discourse problems in the official documents of comprehensive agencies: One is correct nonsense. Its the words that you cant find faults or grasp and are meaningless. The second is beautiful empty talk. That is, if there is no nutrition. Say more and say less, say and dont say the same. It is reflected in the writing or speech of the agency, that is, those principles that come from principles but do not really tune in, and those words that go through the clouds and mists to nowhere, including those that seem to be eye-catching but are actually vague. The third is rigorous routines. It is those language models that form a fixed routine over time. This language model is usually divided into two categories. One is the conventional idioms, and the other is the matching idioms of Jackie Chan. Fourth, lies against ones intentions. It refers to the internal affairs of the agency. Some words that are obviously false but have to be tacitly true. It is okay to slander and pretend to be stupid, but they must never be broken. To change this situation, the cadres in charge of drafting official documents have a heavy responsibility. If we all write official documents into American documents, it will be a great enjoyment to read such documents. What is a beautiful essay The explanation of Ciyuan is: beautiful words. I think that beautiful writing is a concept that keeps pace with the times. In laymans terms, any well-written article, whether it is a literary work or a practical article, is beautiful. Then, how to applaud the article, how to approve it, and how to write it well, there are many reasons in it. It can be said that the wise see wisdom and the benevolent see benevolence. Chairman Mao Zedong once put forward a request: Articles and documents should have these three characteristics: accuracy, vividness, and vividness. I think that official documents with these three characteristics can be called beautiful documents. Specifically, to write official documents as beautiful essays, at least they must have the characteristics of popularity, profoundness, conciseness, and vividness. Popular-Explain the profound theories in simple language, the expression of the short-term and the far-reaching articles can be roughly divided into four types: in-depth and in-depth, in-depth and in simple terms, and in and out of the shallow, and in and out of the fore. For these four types, the best is to learn in simple terms, and the worst is to learn deeply. The reason is self-evident. The purpose of writing articles and documents is for others to see, not for ourselves, so only you can understand it. The most important thing is for others to understand. If people dont understand or dont fully understand, then they cant stand it. Even if you bite the bullet and read it, it is paradoxical, and it is difficult to get good results. Through research, it is found that not only do we regard simple and easy-to-understand as the highest level of articles and documents, but also foreign ideological and cultural circles. The American cultural circle puts forward six criteria for what a masterpiece is: one is popular, the other is the most readers, the third is short-term, the fourth is long-lasting, the fifth is educational and enlightening, and the sixth is related to human life. The first three standards are simple and easy to understand. What kind of article is easy to understand and easy to understand In a nutshell: The layman can understand, but the expert looks at it but the layman. Especially those professional and technical official documents need to be popularized, simple, and popular in the drafting process. The most common method is to use metaphors to make sense, which is what we usually call metaphors or analogies. It generally uses concrete, simple, and familiar things to illustrate or describe abstract, profound, and unfamiliar truths. Lets take an example, it will be easier to understand. When our country joined the WTO, many people were still not very clear about the profound meaning of joining the WTO. In his report, Long Yongtu explained: As my countrys current economy is relatively weak and the United States and other Western countries are relatively strong, we are in a disadvantaged position to resolve trade frictions and disputes face-to-face. As a developing country, China is willing to use the WTOs multilateral dispute settlement mechanism, which is a benefit of joining the WTO. The reason is very simple. When a big man and a small man have a conflict, the big man likes to solve it face-to-face with two people, and drag the small man to a dark corner to single-handedly fight. The small man hopes to take the conflict to a place where there are many people, and hope that someone will be fair and reasonable. Therefore, we are willing to use the WTOs multilateral dispute settlement mechanism. Long Yongtus speech made it easy for the audience to understand the benefits of joining the WTO. This is how we write articles, and it must be popular. Profound-When you touch on the problem, you have a clear point of view. If you carefully analyze the history of written materials, you will find such a phenomenon, whether it is a practical article or a literary work, some have a great impact after being written, and some even spread through the ages and become the ages. Swan song. For example, judging from typical materials, such as Wearing a Chicken and Dancing by Zu Di, Meng Zis Mother Choosing a Neighbor by Mengzis mother, and Cracking the Wall and Stealing Light by Kuang Heng, these stories have been circulated for thousands of years. , A household name, but it will continue to be passed on. From the suggestion type of official documents, such as Li Sis Admonishment to the Guest, Wei Zhengs Admonish Taizong Ten Thoughts, etc., they are all famous in history. They have been passed down for one or two thousand years and passed on from generation to generation. The implied thoughts are still being quoted today. Of course, there are some articles that didnt attract peoples attention after they were written, and they were even silent as soon as they were written. Everyone has been to the Forbidden City, and there are many longevity and boundless fuss written on the walls of the Forbidden City. They were written for the Empress Dowager Cixis birthday. Take a closer look at the fuss. The writing is very gorgeous, the dialogue is very skillful, and the writing is also very good. It was written on the wall again. So many people went to the Forbidden City. It should be said that the advertisements are very broad, but until now, I have never heard anyone say that one of the Wanshou Wujiang Fu in the Forbidden City is well written. What is the reason for this phenomenon We will find that the size of the article’s repercussions and the origin of the impact depend on whether the article touches the problem or whether it is written for a certain problem. Whenever the problem is touched, the impact will be greater and the spread will be far away. Otherwise, it will be moaning. Some are just gorgeous rhetoric, and some are just complex materials. They don’t address any problem or solve any problem. After people read it, they don’t know what the author is for or against. There is no thought, no opinion, no soul. There will be no impact. Therefore, if we want to write official documents as beautiful essays, we must dare to touch on the problem. First of all, the sharper and more prominent the problem, the greater the impact. We all have this experience in our daily lives. Sometimes a job or a social problem is very prominent in real life, and the contradiction is very sharp. Everyone feels that there is an urgent need for change and need to be resolved. Under such circumstances, someone who has come up with a good experience on this issue and puts forward a good solution will immediately make people suddenly open up. And the more acute the problem, the more prominent the problem, the greater the impact. For example, for a period of time, the broad masses of people have had great opinions on the leadership style, the work style of the leading organs, the style of writing, the style of communication, and the style of speaking. The Eighteenth Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China formulated eight regulations on improving work style and keeping close contact with the masses, improving investigation and research, streamlining meeting activities, streamlining document presentations, standardizing visit activities, improving security work, improving news reports, and rigorously publishing manuscripts. The principles of strict diligence and frugality require specific details, so that there are rules to follow and evidence to follow, and take the lead in setting an example and put it into action. It has aroused strong repercussions across the country, at home and abroad, and received high praise. Secondly, the wider the scope of the problem, the stronger the response. Practice has proved that the effect of an article touched on is: if it is directed at a certain person, it can only cause a reaction from the person concerned; if it is directed at a certain unit, it will cause a reaction in this unit; if it is directed at an industry If it is aimed at the entire society, it will cause a response in the entire society; if it is aimed at the universal existence of humans, it will have an impact on the entire human race. For example, during the War of Resistance Against Japan, two ideological tendencies appeared in China. One thought that we could quickly eliminate the enemy and win the War of Resistance against Japan. The process of the War of Resistance against Japan was blindly optimistic. This tendency was called Quick victory theory; another tendency is called subjugation theory, which believes that the power difference between the enemy and ours is too great, and the weapon equipment and resources are too obvious. We cannot defeat the enemy. If we fight hard, we will perish the country, and we are full of pessimism about the future. Faced with these two propositions, Mao Zedong made a comparison and objective analysis of various forces based on the actual situation at the time, and clearly pointed out: The Anti-Japanese War was an arduous and protracted peoples war, but the final victory belongs to us! This is the famous glorious chapter On Protracted War. According to Cheng Siyuans recollection, as soon as Mao Zedongs On Protracted War was published, Zhou Enlai introduced its basic spirit to Bai Chongxi. Bai Chongxi deeply admired it and believed it was the highest strategic policy for defeating the enemy, and relayed it to Chiang Kai-shek, who also very much agreed. With the support of Chiang Kai-shek, Bai Chongxi summed up the spirit of On Protracted War into two sentences, Small victory is a big victory, and space is exchanged for time. The Military Commission issued a general order to the whole country as the strategic guiding ideology in the War of Resistance Against Japan. The glorious article On Protracted War made the people of the whole country understand the situation, clarify our strengths, and more clearly understand the enemy’s weaknesses, and how to use our strengths to attack the enemy’s weaknesses, reverse the situation of war, and transform the situation. Disadvantages are beneficial. They are fully ideologically prepared for the final defeat of the Japanese aggressors, and they are full of confidence in the great victory of the War of Resistance against Japan, which has boosted the morale of the people. The whole country formed a broad united front and persisted in the war of resistance for eight years, and finally won victory, making the Japanese aggressors unconditionally surrender. Third, the more difficult it is to solve the problems that are touched, and the more repeated times in history, the longer the impact will be. There is a well-known ancient poem: “It’s noon on the day of hoeing, and the sweat drips down the soil. Who knows that Chinese food on a plate is hard work.” It has been spread for two thousand years, and it is still being spread. Why does it have such a strong vitality Because this poem is aimed at some people who do not cherish the sweat of the working people, it is still widespread. Because the phenomenon of waste on the tip of the tongue is shocking and heartache, people often cite this poem to educate everyone that when the problem of waste no longer exists, this poem has no vitality. For another example, we promoted Jiao Yulu as a typical example in the 1960s, which caused great and strong responses at that time. More than half a century has passed, and now Jiao Yulu has been featured in movies and TV. The response is still great, and many people are moved to tears. why Jiao Yulu wrote in response to some cadres lack of professionalism and uncorrupted work style. This problem was prominent among the cadres at that time and also among the current cadres, so it can arouse strong ideological resonance among the masses. Then again, if Jiao Yulu, a typical example, received the Liberation War, Anti-Japanese War or Jinggangshan period propaganda, the impact would not be great, because at that time almost all of our party cadres did this, and there was no professionalism in the cadre team. The problem of not being strong and the party style. Therefore, the influence of propaganda at that time would not be as great as it is today. These two typical examples, ancient and modern, fully illustrate that no matter which method is used to write written materials, as long as the problem is more difficult to solve, the longer the repeated time in human history, the more profound the impact. On the contrary, the vitality is short. The problem is the soul of written materials. If you want to write a good official document, you must understand the problem, study the problem well, and write in response to the problem. As long as they are good at researching problems, people who dont know how to write materials can quickly write materials, and people who write general materials can improve the quality of writing relatively quickly. On the contrary, if you do not pay attention to this issue, despite paying a lot of price and thinking about a lot of ideas, the material is still not well written, let alone writing something influential. Therefore, when we write things, we should establish such a kind of thinking, that is, what problem is I writing this thing, and solving this problem is for human society, for our country, for our nation, for our army, for some of us. What is the use of this industry I will write if it is useful, and dont do useless work if it is not useful. As long as we build up this point of view and work hard in this regard, the quality of our official document writing will continue to improve, and we will be able to gradually write important things. u0026nbsp;Concise-concise and clear, concise and concise is to be concise and concise, there are no extra words for mothers to introduce the plot like a flower. I think that conciseness is not only a form of writing, but also an aesthetic quality of the article. Here is an interesting explanation of the word concise. In the lower part of the word Jian, there is a word 日 in the door, which means a ray of sunlight penetrates through the crack of the door. Ming, the meaning is clear and clear, like a bowl of clear water when you see the bottom. An official document like this with few words and deep meaning, clear and transparent, will of course be welcomed by people. How to write a concise official document One is to think carefully and write after thinking about it. If you cant simply say it clearly, you dont fully understand it. Einsteins sentence points to the point of some people who speak long words and write long articles. Many people say the problem over and over again, always afraid that people will not understand it, but in fact they did not want to understand it thoroughly. And those refined and profound expressions often show how well people understand the problem. The second is straight to the point. Straightforward, straight to the subject, hit the nail on the head, straight out, should be a pursuit of modern official documents. Just like a soldier shooting a target, he aims at the bullseye, speaks the ten-ring language, hits the point, and is straightforward. The third is to grasp the importance and grasp the key points. An official document, an article, will often involve all aspects and multiple levels. There are both priority and priority. To express more information and content with the fewest words, you should grasp the key points, grasp the key points, focus on the light and the light, and do not be greedy for big things, equal parts, and comprehensive. The fourth is to highly generalize and extract the essence. Conciseness is inseparable from generalization, and generalization must be widely collected. Mr. Lao She said: Succinctness requires generalization and knowledge. Knowing a hundred people, and writing about one person; knowing a hundred things and writing one thing, can write concise. Concise. (Lao She: Export into a Chapter, Fudan University Press, 2004 Edition) This is really insightful! If you want to write less, ask for more. Only by grasping the most typical and precise examples and language can the article be refined and receive the effect of conciseness and clarity. The fifth is to control the deployment, simply and neatly. One writer said that literature is the art of tailoring. We can also say that official document writing is the art of choice. If you want to be short and precise, you should choose those things that must be written, choose those things that count as ten, and choose the layout and level that can express your thoughts most accurately. The soldiers are not many but fine. The material is not much but effective. Every thought element, every word and sentence should be reviewed and checked. Precise and effective, used in key places, without much practical significance, will be reduced and eliminated, and strive to make the article approximately like a cloud, mother is like a flower, the story is like a flower, the beginning is indefinite, but often in Do what you should do, stop what you can do.” (Su Shi: A Letter of Appreciation to the Civilian Teachers) Sixth, meticulous revision and repeated tempering. Good materials are written and revised. Mr. Lu Xun said: After writing, read it at least twice and try to delete unnecessary words, sentences, and paragraphs. It is no pity. I would rather condense the material that can be used as a novel into a sketch, and never turn the material for a short sketch into a novel. (The Complete Works of Lu Xun, Volume 4, Peoples Literature Publishing House, 1956 edition) Tolstoy regarded deletion as a writing method and trick, and he followed this rule throughout his life. He also told others: We must always abandon the idea that writing can be modified without modification. Three or four revisions are too few.” (Applied Writing 2008 No. 1) The reason why literary masters have repeatedly emphasized the problem of modification is that any recognition results are not achieved overnight. It is gradually perfected through repetition, comparison, scrutiny, and tempering. All in all, I think it is necessary to write the official documents concisely, and to write the more complicated meanings in the shortest space, just like the purification of ore and the concentration of elements, it must be refined. Therefore, after the article is written, it is necessary to carefully consider each sentence and re-examine it. Vivid-can persuade and impress people Hu Qiaomu put forward three standards for vivid official documents in How to Write Documents: one must be attractive, there must be a good introduction method, and the force must be attractive; second, it must be seen Understand; three must be able to persuade and impress people. He also pointed out that when we write articles, we always think that our truth is right, and we want people to believe it, and we must convince the party and the people. Writing a document is to persuade people with reason, not only to persuade people, but also to move people. Persuasion focuses on the rational aspect. In addition to the rational aspect, moving people has a little emotion, so that the person watching is really mobilized by you. u0026nbsp;——Pay attention to moving people with affection. u0026nbsp;We draft official documents for the sake of others. Although they are discussing work, they should be sentimental. There must be sentiment for what is promoted and promoted, and for what is opposed. It can be said that the role of emotion in written materials is very large. Reading sentimental materials is like a spring breeze, making people love it, and what it says is easy to accept. Emotionless materials are frosty and boring. Im afraid to avoid them. Its hard to talk about playing its role. First of all, the position must be right, not condescending. Mao Zedong’s Speech at the National Propaganda Work Conference of the Communist Party of China on March 12, 1957 pointed out that when writing articles, don’t always think about “how clever I am”, but take a completely equal position with readers. Attitude, the more you put on airs, the more people ignore your style, the less people like to read your articles. We should act honestly and dont frighten people by pretending to be. Keep these teachings in mind. Most of the writings of government officials are on behalf of the first-level organizations or stand for the first-level leaders. Regardless of the agency or the leader, they must treat others with a sincere and equal attitude, and always appear in the attitude of ordinary people, without putting on airs or being full of air, so that what comes out of the pen will naturally be moved with emotion and reason; Will use more common sentences, less obscure sentences; more short sentences, less long sentences; more inspirational sentences, less imperative sentences. The hateful face has become a dear face. Secondly, thinking should be dialectical and not going to extremes. Views on work, views on people, affirming everything or denying everything, are one-sided. In the drafting of written materials, some people tend to go to extremes, saying that everything is good if it is good, and everything is bad if it is bad. This style of writing is also boring. The correct method is to look at it dialectically, comprehensively, connectedly, developingly, without partiality, one ugly covering the ugliness, nor the ugliness covering the ugliness, seeking truth from facts, comprehensive and objective, this kind of material is in line with things. The original appearance is credible and amiable. Again, the language must be lively and not straightforward. In order to make the official documents feel emotional, we must also pay attention to learning and using the language of the masses. This is Mao Zedongs call. Some people say that the use of public language in official documents will give people a sense of not seriousness and truthfulness. This is a prejudice. Strictness and truthfulness do not depend on the masses language, but whether the masses speak this language and whether they can correctly explain their views in these languages. If it does exist and can explain the problem, using it in the official document can enhance the appeal and authenticity. Reading Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaopings articles, you can see lively folk sayings and popular language everywhere. Like Mao Zedong’s frequently used masters, experts, inspired books, make foreigners, eat the old, outsiders, combination of native and foreign, vegetables are soldiers, heavenly king Laozi, If you dont offend me, I wont offend you, If you dont fight, you dont know each other, Open The skylight speaks bright words, “Heroes are sad for the beauty off”, “It’s not that enemies don’t gather their heads”, “Three piles on a fence, and three gangs of a hero”, “Tiger’s butt can’t be touched”, “Eight immortals cross the sea, each showing their magical powers” The East is not bright, the West is bright, A single spark can start a prairie fire, Heaven is going to rain, my mother is going to marry, etc.; Deng Xiaopings commonly used changing brains, reliable, not enough, old ancestors, and old. New bottled wine, crossing the river by feeling the stones, the sky will not fall down and so on, are all the essence extracted from the sea of folk language. The sentences are cordial and natural, and the sentences are vivid and simple. ——Follow the language characteristics of official documents. The language of official documents has its own aesthetic category. It requires unpretentious, accurate specifications, profound meaning, concise and lively, catchy, and has a strong appeal and charisma. The ancients said: There is no word in words, and you cant go far. To improve the quality of official documents, it is very important to carefully polish them in accordance with the language characteristics of official documents. The first is to be accurate. Official documents, especially work guidance documents, such as resolutions, decisions, opinions, etc., are very serious documents. They have a certain statutory nature and reflect the authority of the issuing agency and must be accurate. Even for leaders’ speeches, investigation reports, summary reports, and experience materials, the presentation should be very accurate. Otherwise, it may play a misleading role and bring losses to work and construction. When polishing, grasp three key points: First, the meaning must be accurate. Every sentence can only have one meaning, one understanding, no multiple understandings, no doubt or ambiguity, no ambiguity or ambiguity. Secondly, the wording should be appropriate. In particular, pay attention to grasp the scope and degree of limitation, and cannot generalize or absoluteize specific and specific things. When it comes to the evaluation and characterization of a certain event, a certain job, a certain person, or a certain problem, we must respect history, respect facts, grasp proper measures, and make accurate statements that conform to reality. Again, the formulation must have a basis. Whether it is to use past formulations or to create new formulations, it must be well-founded, and must be conscientiously researched and demonstrated, and cannot be imagined out of thin air. u0026nbsp;The second is to enrich the connotation. Official documents should not be too shallow, like running accounts, they must have rich connotations. It must have a profound ideological nature, a strong pertinence, and a strong orientation, so that people have room for recollection, thinking, and experience. Therefore, when drafting an official document, we must pay great attention to the high-level generalization and conciseness of the sentence, and maximize its inherent tension and thought capacity. You cannot say one sentence is 10,000 sentences, at least one sentence is one sentence. When Tolstoy wrote his famous book Anna Karenina, he wrote two pieces of paper in the introduction part at the beginning, and finally condensed into two sentences: Happy families are similar, unfortunate families Each has its own misfortune. Its connotation is much richer than the original two pages. When drafting documents, we must have this spirit. u0026nbsp;The third is to standardize the language. Norms are not dull and outdated, nor are they uniform, but can express the content of the article accurately, vividly and vividly. Guo Moruo said: In terms of language, it is required that words should always be used appropriately. In this way, the concept of expression will be accurate and can make people feel clear. He also emphasized that in choosing words, sentences and words, we must use more Some hearts, dont choose esoteric foreign-style words and sentences. The syntactic structure should be honest and conform to the general rules of Chinese. There are two secrets to using characters, that is, use ready-made characters with clear concepts, and dont use too remote characters. The remote words are not clear, and it is not easy for others to understand. Vague words-words that can be explained in this way and words that can be explained in that way are best avoided. Use clear rather than ambiguous words to express, you can get a sharp effect. I understand that what Guo Lao is talking about should be the gist of language norms. Our Chinese vocabulary is very particular, and only by carefully pondering the subtleties can we use it properly. Some words have different meanings in ancient and modern times. For example, transportation now refers to the transportation industry. In the past, it referred to collusion. Internal communication and diplomacy means collusion between inside and outside; another example is review, which means checking errors in modern times, but in the past it means inspection. Summary means, including summarizing the results and pointing out shortcomings. There are also some words that differ in praise and criticism. For example, stubbornness and persistence actually mean the same thing, but the correct stubbornness is persistence and the wrong persistence is stubbornness. There are also related persons, such as widows and widows, both refer to women whose husbands have died, but their uses are different. The general widows are called widows, and the widows with identity are called widows. . There are also expressing feelings, such as cool and cold. The more comfortable cold is called cool, and the cool that feels bad is called cold. Therefore, when we draft the official document, we must choose the most appropriate word to express the meaning accurately. Special attention should be paid to the ridiculous expressions in online language in official documents, such as classmates as childrens shoes, tragedies as cups, and mothers as macks. Ma, writing what as shenma will lose the seriousness of the official document. ——Pay attention to moving people with things. Generally speaking, facts are the most convincing and moving. But facts are not enough. When writing, you have to consider how to explain this fact clearly, write it perfectly, and make people interesting to read. One is to use adjectives as little as possible. When Guo Moruo answered the question from the reporter of New Observation, he said: To make the article lively, I think that using less adjectives is a secret. Now there is a problem with some articles, which is that they love to pile up adjectives, and always use the most adjectives. Advanced adjectives, such as describing the beauty of a person, say “very, very beautiful” or “extremely extreme beauty.” Another sentence like “60 million people are overwhelming, riding the wind and waves...” is a bit of a sentence Inappropriate. The problem Guo Lao said is still pertinent and universal. Of course, to use adjectives less is not not to use them, but to use adjectives accurately. Flaubert once said, If you want to describe something, you have to find the only adjective. The person who describes it has appearance, shape, appearance, and posture. What can be explained by the simplest verb-object structure, if you add a description, it will be more charming, better-looking, more vivid, and richer in connotation. Its like a sketch with color. For example, he walks on the road is not as vivid as he walks on the road happily; she laughs is not as vivid as she smiles like a flower. Therefore, adjectives must be used accurately, otherwise, dont use them indiscriminately. The second is to reverse a misunderstanding. This is why some people think that official documents should not be too specific or too practical, otherwise they will lack general guiding significance. Due to the guidance of this thought, some always pursue principles and rationality in the drafting process. On the surface, this kind of material has a high intention and great momentum, but in fact it is very weak, and it contains mostly big talk, empty talk, and clichés that lack actual content. No matter how much such written materials are written, they are only essays for occasions and superficial essays, which have no effect on the work. Therefore, we should get rid of the misunderstanding of sitting and discussing the truth, from the fictitious to the fictitious, and going from the principle to the principle, and constantly improve the ability to speak with facts. u0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;First of all, be good at using the data you investigate. This requires that you must go deep into the grassroots level, go deep into the actual situation, investigate and study, and master a lot of first-hand information before you start writing. When I was engaged in journalism in the past, I heard a saying of seven points for interviews and three points for writing, which made sense. Official cadres can also learn from this three-seven rule when drafting official documents. With a wealth of first-hand information, they dont have to work behind closed doors and rack their brains to fabricate them. u0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;Secondly, be good at using digital data. The number itself is boring, but if used properly, it will greatly enhance the appeal and persuasiveness of the article. For example, Premier Zhou Enlai is a universally recognized role model for devoting himself to death after his death, and he cannot sing praises in any kind of language. One piece of material used a series of figures: Zhou Enlai was admitted to the hospital on June 1, 1974. According to statistics, there were 139 days from January to May. He worked 12 to 14 hours a day for 9 days; 14 to 18 Hours have 74 days; 19 to 23 hours have 38 days; 24 hours have 5 days. Only 13 days work within 12 hours. From mid-March to the end of May, two and a half months, in addition to daily work, he has Participated in 21 central meetings, 54 foreign affairs activities, and 57 other meetings and talks... This series of figures is truly touching! u0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;Third, we must be good at using scientific research results data. Among the scientific research results, there are natural sciences and social sciences, and they can be used appropriately according to the needs of written materials. For example, we often talk about perseverance, and some articles list the tenacity of several celebrities: Darwin wrote The Origin of Species for 27 years, Goethes Faust was written for 60 years, and Sima Qian wrote Records of the History. It took 18 years for Sima Guang to edit Zizhi Tongjian for 19 years, Li Shizhen to write Compendium of Materia Medica for 30 years, and Song Yingxing’s Tiangong Kaiwu for 18 years... Through these monuments, we It seems to have seen the tall figures of these celebrities who worked hard, persevering and persevering in order to achieve their goals, which increased the appeal and persuasiveness of the article. u0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;Fourth, be good at using allusions. In the long river of human history, many well-known allusions have been left in ancient and modern times, both at home and abroad. Some of these examples are not necessarily true, but the content of thoughts expounded is true. Proper use can enhance the brilliance of the article. I saw Comrade Li Ruihuan’s speech when he met with celebrities from all walks of life in Hong Kong, in which he used an allusion: such a story is recorded in an ancient book. In the Han Dynasty, Tian Zhen, Tian Qing and Tian Guang, the three brothers of Tian Clan in Jingcheng, had always been in harmony. When we got along, there was a redbud tree in the courtyard with luxuriant flowers and leaves, but then they were awkward and wanted to separate. The redbud withered overnight. The three brothers were shocked and moved, so the brothers stopped dividing their families. Reconciliation is as good as before, and the bauhinia is in full bloom again. In the Jin Dynasty, Lu Ji wrote a poem saying, Three Jinghuan are on the same plant, and the four birds are in different forests. Li Bai of the Tang Dynasty said with emotion, Tians corpse and flesh are divided, and the blue sky destroys the bauhinia. A legend of thought may not be true. But the truth expressed in this story is indeed thought-provoking. u0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;Of course, writing articles and materials should speak with facts, not a simple listing of facts, but a combination of narrative and reasoning, combining narration and discussion, and combining facts. For example, after quoting this allusion, Comrade Li Ruihuan went on to say, The reason why our 5,000-year-old civilized country has endured hardships and continued to rise up high in adversity is because there are many such broad and profound ideas, and there is a kind of inherent strength.凝聚力。当今中国要发展,要振兴,必须继承弘扬中华民族的优良传统,特别要倡导和合,强调团结。”u0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;——要注意把细节写好。我觉得,一篇好的文字材料,必定要有血有肉,详略适当,该简的地方一笔带过,该繁的地方不能省略,否则就剩下干巴巴的几条筋,像骷髅般丑陋难看。 u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp; 一是要在抽象的论述中加些不抽象的东西。胡乔木曾指出:写文件要生动,不生动人家不愿意看,但不能像普通文学作品那样办。要生动就得在抽象的论述中加些不抽象的东西,这样可以增加生动性。纯粹抽象的,像算术题似的,一道道列下去,怎样也不会生动,因为全部是抽象的。我们讨论工作本来是比较抽象的东西,讲的道理、列的数字是抽象的,可以穿插一些具体人、具体单位、具体事实,这样文章就可以不那么沉闷。他还列举了一个例子,当年湖北省委转发关于红安县委搞试验田的经验报告,加了一些具体情节:乡里人到县里要见干部,干部开始说是“没有时间”,等到“有时间”,又说“下班了”。以后城里干部下乡,乡里人也说“没时间”,等了一会儿,他也说“我下班了!”引了这么件事就大为生动。还提到干部穿着鞋袜,在田岸上“检查生产”,社员骂了他一顿,说“摇摇摆摆像个相公,莫把田埂子踩塌了!”单这句话还不够,又问:“你骂谁?”社员说:“我骂你!”然后再加上县委书记说:“骂得对!”有这样的对话,印象就很深刻。从胡乔木举的这个例子不难看出,公文起草运用细节,确能增加生动性。 u0026nbsp; u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;二是要把工作中的原则要求讲细致。 “细节”也不一定都是人物对话、人物动作,把工作中的原则要求讲细致,就得有细节。比如,我们经常强调,改进领导作风,关心群众利益,要“想群众所想,急群众所急,帮群众所需”,这话没错,写起来顺手,读起来顺口,听起来顺耳。但仔细一琢磨,到底怎样做才算“想、急、帮”,很难有个准确的答案。所以,千真万确的大话、套话,不一定是有用的话,在材料起草中一定要少用或不用。毛泽东同志在《关心群众生活,注意工作方法》中就把“细节”交代得很清楚:“我们应该深刻地注意群众生活的问题,从土地、劳动问题,到柴米油盐的问题。妇女群众要学习犁耙,找什么人去教她们呢?小孩子要求读书,小学办起来了没有呢?对面的小桥太小会跌倒行人,要不要修理一下呢……”这“应该讨论,应该决定,应该实行,应该检查。”看了这些要求,任何人都知道如何去做,用不着费劲去揣摩领导心思。 1966年邢台发生地震,周总理来到隆尧县的白家寨村,当他得知群众炊具被砸坏,每天只吃干粮时,没有提一些“要高度重视、全力解决”之类的大口号,而是指示救灾指挥部负责人:“要保证群众每家有一盏煤油灯,一个和面盆,一口锅,一把饭勺,每人一双筷子,一个碗”,有了这样的“细节”,文章怎能不实在、不生动呢? u0026nbsp;三是用形象化语言表述理性内容。有人讲,机关公文理性占很大比例,不好出细节。实际上,理性文章用形象化的语言表述出来,也能出“细节”。比如毛泽东在《论联合政府》中讲到大革命失败后说:“中国共产党和中国人民并没有被吓倒,被征服,被杀绝。他们从地下爬起来,揩干净身上的血迹,掩埋好同伴的尸首,他们又继续战斗了。”我们看,写得多么简明和生动。马克思的《资本论》是大部头的理论著作,马克思在描写劳动力的买卖时这样写道:“原来的货币所有者成了资本家,昂首前行。劳动所有者成了他的工人,尾随于后。一个笑容满面,雄心勃勃;一个战战兢兢,畏缩不前,像在市场上出卖了自己的皮一样,只有一个前途———让人家来鞣。”我想,“爬起”“揩干”“掩埋”“昂首前进”“尾随于后”“笑容满面”“畏缩不前”等也属“有细节”之类。所以,只要我们重视细节的描写和运用,文字材料就会变得栩栩如生,引人入胜。 --THE END--本文来源于网络,对原作者表示感谢,内容仅做公益性分享,若有侵权,请告知删除。微信扫一扫关注该公众号
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行业: 文化
地区: 邯郸市
时间:2021-04-10
标签:720weixin

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